Center for Advanced Practice


Achieving adequate growth in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia prior to discharge.

Publication Title

Journal of pediatric surgery

Document Type


PubMed ID



BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To evaluate the enteral feeding requirements, including caloric provisions, of infants with CDH in relation to growth patterns.

METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted on infants with CDH between August 2012 and March 2017. Electronic medical records were reviewed to extract detailed infant feeding data and anthropometric measurements at monthly intervals until discharge. Statistical methods of analysis included generalized linear models, Pearson correlation coefficient, Analysis of variance (ANOVA), Kruskal-Wallis, Wilcoxon rank sum, and Fisher's Exact tests.

RESULTS: Among 149 infants with CDH, 45% (n = 67) met criteria for malnutrition at discharge. Maternal human milk (HM) was initiated in 95% of infants (n = 142) and continued in 79% of infants (n = 118) at discharge. Overall, 50% received fortification of feeds, including 60% (n = 89) of formula fed infants compared to only 21% (n = 31) of HM fed infants (p

CONCLUSIONS: Infants receiving HM demonstrated improved growth compared to formula fed infants. However, higher calorie feeding regimens need to be initiated earlier to improve growth velocity. Prompt recognition of malnutrition and growth failure with aggressive supplementation may improve the overall growth of infants with CDH and has the potential to improve long term neurodevelopmental outcomes.


Hernias, Diaphragmatic, Congenital, Humans, Infant, Infant Formula, Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Milk, Human, Patient Discharge



Publication Date