Lymphatic imaging and intervention in a pediatric population: Anesthetic considerations.
The recent adoption of an improved lymphatic access technique coupled with Dynamic Contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Lymphangiography has introduced the ability to diagnose and treat severe lymphatic disorders unresponsive to other therapies. All pediatric patients presenting for lymphatic procedures require general anesthesia presenting challenges in managing highly morbid and comorbid conditions both from logistical as well as medical aspects. General anesthesia is used because of the procedural requirement for immobility to accurately place needles and catheters, treat pain secondary to contrast and glue injections, and to accommodate additional procedures. We reviewed a one-year cohort of all pediatric patients in a newly created Center for Lymphatic Imaging and Intervention at a tertiary care children's hospital presenting for lymphatic procedures. The patients ranged in age from 4 days to 17 years and weighed from 2.5 to 92 kg. There were 106 anesthetics for 68 patients. Patients were functionally impaired (98% ASA 3 or 4) and included significant comorbidities (79.4%). Concurrent with lymphatic imaging and intervention additional procedures were frequently performed (76%). They included cardiac catheterization, bronchoscopy, endoscopy, and drain placement (thoracic or abdominal). Paralysis and controlled ventilation was used for all interventions. Reversal of paralysis and tracheal extubation occurred in all patients not previously managed by invasive respiratory support. All patients having an intervention were admitted to intensive care for observation where escalation of care or complications (fever, hypotension, bleeding, or stroke) occurred in 25% in the first 24 hours.
Adolescent, Anesthesia, Child, Child, Preschool, Female, Humans, Infant, Infant, Newborn, Lymph Nodes, Lymphatic Diseases, Lymphography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Male
Jobes, D., Brown, L., Dori, Y., Itkin, M., & Nicolson, S. (2018). Lymphatic imaging and intervention in a pediatric population: Anesthetic considerations.. Paediatric anaesthesia, 28 (6), 507-512. https://doi.org/10.1111/pan.13385