Center for Advanced Practice


Stereoelectroencephalography before 2 years of age.

Publication Title

Neurosurgical focus [electronic resource]

Document Type


PubMed ID



OBJECTIVE: Stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) is a widely used technique for localizing seizure onset zones prior to resection. However, its use has traditionally been avoided in children under 2 years of age because of concerns regarding pin fixation in the immature skull, intraoperative and postoperative electrode bolt security, and stereotactic registration accuracy. In this retrospective study, the authors describe their experience using SEEG in patients younger than 2 years of age, with a focus on the procedure's safety, feasibility, and accuracy as well as surgical outcomes.

METHODS: A retrospective review of children under 2 years of age who had undergone SEEG while at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia between November 2017 and July 2021 was performed. Data on clinical characteristics, surgical procedure, imaging results, electrode accuracy measurements, and postoperative outcomes were examined.

RESULTS: Five patients younger than 2 years of age underwent SEEG during the study period (median age 20 months, range 17-23 months). The mean age at seizure onset was 9 months. Developmental delay was present in all patients, and epilepsy-associated genetic diagnoses included tuberous sclerosis (n = 1), KAT6B (n = 1), and NPRL3 (n = 1). Cortical lesions included tubers from tuberous sclerosis (n = 1), mesial temporal sclerosis (n = 1), and cortical dysplasia (n = 3). The mean number of placed electrodes was 11 (range 6-20 electrodes). Bilateral electrodes were placed in 1 patient. Seizure onset zones were identified in all cases. There were no SEEG-related complications, including skull fracture, electrode misplacement, hemorrhage, infection, cerebrospinal fluid leakage, electrode pullout, neurological deficit, or death. The mean target point error for all electrodes was 1.0 mm. All patients proceeded to resective surgery, with a mean follow-up of 21 months (range 8-53 months). All patients attained a favorable epilepsy outcome, including Engel class IA (n = 2), IC (n = 1), ID (n = 1), and IIA (n = 1).

CONCLUSIONS: SEEG can be safely, accurately, and effectively utilized in children under age 2 with good postoperative outcomes using standard SEEG equipment. With minimal modification, this procedure is feasible in those with immature skulls and guides the epilepsy team's decision-making for early and optimal treatment of refractory epilepsy through effective localization of seizure onset zones.


Pediatrics, Drug Resistant Epilepsy, Electrodes, Implanted, Electroencephalography, Epilepsy, GTPase-Activating Proteins, Histone Acetyltransferases, Humans, Infant, Retrospective Studies, Seizures, Stereotaxic Techniques, Tuberous Sclerosis, functional neurosurgery, Retrospective Studies, Implanted Electrodes, Histone Acetyltransferases



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